What is a bone graft?
After a tooth has been extracted or lost by any cause, the bone surrounding it starts to resorb and lose volume. In addition, a number of factors such as periodontal disease (gum and bone disease), infection or trauma reduce bone quantity and quality.
When bone structure is missing, reconstructive bone graft surgery can be a solution to obtain the necessary bone volume to receive a dental implant, or to strengthen the support for a tooth affected with periodontal disease.
A tissue that is either transplanted or synthesized to become part of your body is called a “graft”. A bone graft surgery is a surgical procedure used in our practice to gain enough alveolar bone to be used as a solid foundation for the placement of dental implants or treat a bone defect.
The prognosis of success of dental implants depend to a high degree on the amount of bone that is present at the site where the implant is to be placed.
Our specialists in periodontics applying the latest surgical techniques can increase bone width and height.
How is the bone graft done?
Before the surgery, your clinical exams and X-rays will be analyzed to determine if you need a bone graft. This is very important.
The targeted area for the implant is accessed and the bone bed is prepared to receive the granulated, particulate bone, filling the bone loss areas and anatomical cavities such as maxillary sinus, using special methods.
Collagen, plasma and other types of membranes are used to keep the bone graft tissue in place and protect it.
In the case of larger bone defects, however, the augmentation technique described above is not sufficient. In order to be able to compensate for these defects, it is necessary to use bone blocks or thick chips or plates from the jawbone, or more frequently, synthesized blocks of bone.
These blocks of bone are fixed to the receptor area by means of tiny screws to keep them in place while they get integrated to the patient’s own bone.
In the case of very extensive bone reconstructions, e.g. after accidents, severe infections, tumors, etc.
This procedure must be carried out in a surgical environment, since the bone required for this is taken from the pelvis or the shoulder blade as well as the fibula, ribs, etc.
What materials are used for a bone graft?
Different types of materials are used in bone grafting. Examples for this are:
Autograft is bone graft: Your own bone taken from one part of your body called the “donor site” and transplanted to another part of your body called the “graft site”
Allograft is bone taken from another person and processed to be safe; although not very used as other types of bone.
Bone from an animal, usually bovine or porcine, which is then sterilized, processed and freeze-dried making it safe to be used as a bone graft.
Synthetic bone graft is artificially synthetized bone, created with different porous biocompatible protein based substances.
At Dental Specialists Medellín our highly specialized doctors apply the most advanced state of the art techniques and technologies to perform bone graft surgery to gain the necessary bone to receive a dental implant or treat a bone defect caused by periodontal disease, cyst, or other cause.